JavaScript Editor Javascript validator     Javascripts

Main Page

Previous Section Next Section


The language of choice for querying and manipulating databases is Structured Query Language, often referred to as SQL. SQL is often pronounced "sequel." SQL is a declarative language, as opposed to a procedural language, and it can take a while to get used to working with a declarative language if you are used to languages like VB or C#.

Most programmers tend to think in terms of a sequence of steps: "Find me all the bugs, then get the reporter's ID, then use that ID to look up that user's records in People, then get me the email address." In a declarative language, you declare the entire query, and the query engine returns a set of results. You are not thinking about a set of steps; rather, you are thinking about designing and "shaping" a set of data. Your goal is to make a single declaration that will return the right records. You do that by creating temporary "wide" tables that include all the fields you need and then filtering for only those records you want. "Widen the Bugs table with the People table, joining the two on the PersonID, then filter for only those that meet my criteria."

The heart of SQL is the query. A query is a statement that returns a set of records from the database. For example, you might like to see all of the BugIDs and Bug Descriptions in the Bugs table whose status is Open. To do so you would write:

Select BugID, BugDescription from Bugs where status = 'open'

SQL is capable of much more powerful queries. For example, suppose the Quality Assurance manager would like to know the email address for everyone who has reported a high-priority bug that was resolved in the past ten days. You might create a query such as:

Select emailAddress from Bugs b 
join People p on b.personID = p.personID 
where b.priority='high' 
and b.status in ('closed', 'fixed','NotABug') 
and b.dateModified < DateAdd(d,-10,GetDate(  ))

GetDate returns the current date, and DateAdd returns a new date computed by adding or subtracting an interval from a specified date. In this case, you are returning the date computed by subtracting ten days from the current date.

At first glance, you appear to be selecting the email address from the Bugs table, but that is not possible because the Bugs table does not have an email address. The key phrase is:

Bugs b join People p on b.personID = p.personID

It is as if the join phrase creates a temporary table that is the width of both the Bugs table and the People table joined together. The on keyword dictates how the tables are joined. In this case, the tables are joined on the personID: each record in Bugs (represented by the alias b) is joined to the appropriate record in People (represented by the alias p) when the personID fields match in both records.

A.3.1 Joining Tables

When you join two tables you can say either "get every record that exists in either," (this is called an outer join ) or you can say, as we've done here, "get only those records that exist in both tables" (called an inner join).

Inner joins are the default, and so writing join is the same as writing inner join.

The inner join shown above says: get only the records in People that match the records in Bugs by having the same value in the PersonID field (on b.PersonID = p.PersonID).

The where clause further constrains the search to those records whose priority is high, whose status is one of the three that constitute a resolved Bug (closed, fixed, or not a bug), and that were last modified within the past ten days.

A.3.2 Using SQL to Manipulate the Database

SQL can be used not only for searching for and retrieving data but also for creating, updating, and deleting tables and generally managing and manipulating both the content and the structure of the database. For example, you can update the Priority of a bug in the Bugs table with this statement:

Update Bugs set priority = 'high' where BugID = 101

For a full explanation of SQL and details on using it well, take a look at Transact-SQL Programming, by Kevin Kline, Lee Gould, and Andrew Zanevsky (O'Reilly).

    Previous Section Next Section

    JavaScript Editor Javascript validator     Javascripts