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Required Background

Before discussing the process of creating such animats in games, it seems appropriate to list what skills are required to develop AI. This book assumes the reader has a few years of programming experience, but creating AI is an interdisciplinary process. The AI part of the software sits at the crossroads between the game engine and the AI data; the AI engineer also mediates with the other programmers and designers.


An important skill needed by an AI developer is programming knowledge. AI can get relatively complex in places, but a reasonable knowledge in programming can help significantly. In fact, most programmers would be able to produce rudimentary NPCs without much AI knowledge. That said, programming is rarely the bottleneck of an AI developer.


In this book, the theory behind the algorithms is described in pseudo-code for the sake of simplicity. As such, it's possible to implement them in almost any language. Because the code available on the web site is C++, most of the programming idioms focus on that language.

Computer Science

Most programming skills are accompanied with elementary knowledge of computer science. Being comfortable with data structures (for example, lists, trees, and graphs) and basic algorithms is a tremendous help for creating AI, too. Don't worry, however; the necessary principles are covered by the book.


Math is essential improving as an AI programmer. Just like 3D programmers need knowledge of geometry to push the application programming interface (API) to its limits, mathematical understanding enables AI programmers to integrate cutting-edge theory from academia, and to optimize the theoretical aspects of each algorithm. It is possible to avoid the math by relying on pseudo-code and example implementations, but a more permanent solution requires that you not shy away from theory. This book gives ample opportunities for dedicated readers to understand the theory and make a step toward academic papers.

Software Engineering

Designing an intelligent system that can control a creature in a complex 3D world is no easy task. Applying common design patterns to the problem certainly helps simplify the system. This book explains the design patterns commonly used in AI and how they can be adapted to different problems.

Game Engine Architecture

Preliminary steps need to be climbed before the actual AI development itself can start. This generally involves preparing the engine architecture so that it can support AI. In most cases—especially when human players are already supported—this job is straightforward.

As a good framework is in place, it's actually possible to code AI without knowing too much about the underlying game. Chapter 4, "FEAR: A Platform for Experimentation," presents the framework used as the basis of this book, which is extremely useful from an educational or experimental point of view.

In a professional environment, groups of developers work together to build the game architecture. Experienced developers (those who know best?) can thereby assist the integration of the AI in design and implementation. AI developers can rely on other programmers to assist them when necessary.

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