There are a number of textual conventions utilized by this book to assist you in understanding its material and in working with and creating the examples it presents:
HTML element and attribute names are presented within the text body in all uppercase ("the HTML element" or "the ALIGN attribute," for instance) to make it easier to identify these names when they occur.
However, when HTML elements and attributes occur as HTML code, either in code fragments presented within the body text or in code blocks, they are presented in all lowercase ("the <body> start tag" or align="center", for instance). Both inline code strings and code blocks are presented in a monospaced font. For inline code strings, monospacing distinguishes code from surrounding text; for code blocks, it accurately presents code formatting, where spaces are used to indent or separate code sections.
Bold text is used within the text body or instruction steps for several purposes, including to specify text that you need to type ("Select Run and type notepad," for instance), standalone attribute or property values ("Allowable values include left, right, all, and none," for instance), or a Web address (or URL) that identifies a resource on the Web that the reader can access for additional information ("To learn more about the latest Web standards, visit the W3C's site at www.w3.org/," for instance).
In code blocks and examples, bolded code indicates new code that you need to type (<h1>My Biography</h1>, for instance). Code that has already been typed or is provided as part of one of this book's example files is presented in a normal (non-bolded) monospaced font.