Appendix D.  (X)HTML Symbols and Characters

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D. (X)HTML Symbols and Characters

As you saw in Chapter 21, Symbols and Non-English Characters, you can add symbols and characters that don't belong to your page's encoding or that can't be typed (like invisible characters), by inserting a character reference, that is, the symbol's associated number, hexadecimal number, or name in Unicode.

Since there are more than 65,000 characters in Unicode, printing out each one's numeric or hexadecimal reference would require a book of its own, and be rather unwieldy to boot. Instead, you can consult Unicode's site, (www.unicode.org) where the characters are neatly divided by language and theme.

I can, however, provide you with a list of the 252 named references (officially called character entity references, but also known as entity references or named entity references) that can be used in (X)HTML. You'll find the complete tables in this appendix, as well as on my Web site: www.cookwood.com/entities/. I have included the equivalent numeric codes for your reference. They are divided into categories that I hope will help make them easier to find. (Perhaps the easiest way to find the desired symbol is to go to the Web page cited above and use the Find command.)

Instructions for inserting these symbols and characters on your Web pages can be found in Adding Characters from Outside the Encoding on page 336.

Note that the tables were generated with a browser, for authenticity's sake, and thus appear slightly more pixelated than regular text in this book.

Characters with special meaning in HTML and XHTML

Symbol

Entity

Number

Decription

&

&

&

ampersand

>

>

>

greater-than sign

<

&lt;

&#60;

less-than sign

"

&quot;

&#34;

quotation mark = APL quote


Accented characters, accents, and other diacritics from Western European Languages

Symbol

Entity

Number

Decription

´

&acute;

&#180;

acute accent = spacing acute

¸

&cedil;

&#184;

cedilla = spacing cedilla

ˆ

&circ;

&#710;

modifier letter circumflex accent

¯

&macr;

&#175;

macron = spapcing macron = overline

·

&middot;

&#183;

middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot

~

&tilde;

&#732;

small tilde

¨

&uml;

&#168;

diaeresis = spacing diaeresis

Á

&Aacute;

&#193;

latin capital letter A with acute

á

&aacute;

&#225;

latin small letter a with acute

Â

&Acirc;

&#194;

latin capital letter A with circumflex

â

&acirc;

&#226;

latin small letter a with circumflex

Æ

&AElig;

&#198;

latin capital letter AE

æ

&aelig;

&#230;

latin small letter ae

À

&Agrave;

&#192;

latin capital letter A with grave

à

&agrave;

&#224;

latin capital letter a with ring above

Å

&Aring;

&#197;

latin capital letter A with ring above

å

&aring;

&#229;

latin small letter a with ring above

Ã

&Atilde;

&#195;

latin capital letter A with tilde

ã

&atilde;

&#227;

latin small letter a with tilde

Ä

&Auml;

&#196;

latin capital letter A with diaeresis

ä

&auml;

&#228;

latin small letter a with diaeresis

Ç

&Ccedil;

&#199;

latin capital letter C with cedilla

ç

&ccedil;

&#231;

latin small letter c with cedilla

É

&Eacute;

&#201;

latin capital letter E with acute

é

&eacute;

&#233;

latin small letter e with acute

Ê

&Ecirc;

&#202;

latin capital letter E with circumflex

ê

&ecirc;

&#234;

latin small letter e with circumflex

È

&Egrave;

&#200;

latin capital letter E with grave

è

&egrave;

&#232;

latin small letter e with grave

&ETH;

&#208;

latin capital letter ETH

&eth;

&#240;

latin small letter eth

Ë

&Euml;

&#203;

latin capital letter E with diaeresis

ë

&euml;

&#235;

latin small letter e with diaeresis

&lacute;

&#205;

latin capital letter l with acute

í

&iacute;

&#237;

latin small letter i with acute

Î

&Icirc;

&#206;

latin capital letter I with circumflex

î

&icirc;

&#238;

latin small letter i with circumflex

Ì

&Igrave;

&#204;

latin capital letter I with grave

ì

&igrave;

&#236;

latin small letter i with grave

Ï

&Iuml;

&#207;

latin capital letter I with diaeresis

ï

&iuml;

&#239;

latin small letter i with diaeresis

Ñ

&Ntilde;

&#209;

latin capital letter N with tilde

ñ

&ntilde;

&#241;

latin small letter n with tilde

Ó

&Oacute;

&#211;

latin capital letter O with acute

ó

&oacute;

&#243;

latin small letter o with acute

Ô

&Ocirc;

&#212;

latin capital letter O with circumflex

ô

&ocirc;

&#244;

latin small letter o with circumflex

Œ

&OElig;

&#338;

latin capital ligature OE

œ

&oelig;

&#339;

latin small ligature oe

Ò

&Ograve;

&#210;

latin capital letter O with grave

ò

&ograve;

&#242;

latin small letter o with grave

Ø

&Oslash;

&#216;

latin capital letter O slash

ø

&oslash;

&#248;

latin small letter o slash

Õ

&Otilde;

&#213;

latin capital letter O with tilde

õ

&otilde;

&#245;

latin small letter o with tilde

Ö

&Ouml;

&#214;

latin capital letter O with diaeresis

ö

&ouml;

&#246;

latin small letter o with diaeresis

&Scaron;

&#352;

latin capital letter S with caron

&scaron;

&#353;

latin small letter s with caron

ß

&szlig;

&#223;

latin small letter sharp s = ess-zed

&THORN;

&#222;

latin capital letter THORN

&thron;

&#254;

latin small letter thorn

Ú

&Uacute;

&#218;

latin capital letter U with acute

ú

&uacute;

&#250;

latin small letter u with acute

Û

&Ucirc;

&#219;

latin capital letter U with circumflex

û

&ucirc;

&#251;

latin small letter u with circumflex

Ù

&Ugrave;

&#217;

latin capital letter U with grave

ù

&ugrave;

&#249;

latin small letter u with grave

Ü

&Uuml;

&#220;

latin capital letter U with diaeresis

ü

&uuml;

&#252;

latin small letter u with diaeresis

Ý

&Yacute;

&#221;

latin capital letter Y with acute

&yacute;

&#253;

latin small letter y with acute

ÿ

&yuml;

&#255;

latin small letter y with diaeresis

&Yuml;

&#376;

latin capital letter Y with diaeresis


Punctuation characters

Symbol

Entity

Number

Decription

¢

&cent;

&#162;

cent sign

¤

&curren;

&#164;

currency sign

&euro;

&#8364;

euro sign

£

&pound;

&#163;

pound sign

¥

&yen;

&#165;

yen sign = yuan sign

&brvbar;

&#166;

broken bar = broken vertical bar

&bull;

&#8226;

bullet = black small circle

©

&copy;

&#169;

copyright sign

&dagger;

&#8224;

dagger

&Dagger;

&#8225;

double dagger

/

&frasl;

&#8260;

fraction slash

&hellip;

&#8230;

horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader

¡

&iexcl;

&#161;

inverted exclamation mark

&image;

&#8465;

blackletter capital | = imaginary part

¿

&iquest;

&#191;

inverted question mark

 

&lrm;

&#8206;

left-to-right mark

&mdash;

&#8212;

em dash

&ndash;

&#8211;

en dash

¬

&not;

&#172;

not sign

-

&oline;

&#8254;

overline = spacing oversocre

ª

&ordf;

&#170;

ferminie ordinal indicator

º

&ordm;

&#186;

masculine ordinal indicator

&para;

&#182;

pilcrow sign = paragraph sign

&permil;

&#8240;

per mille sign

'

&prime;

&#8242;

prime = minutes = feet

"

&Prime;

&8243;

double prime = seconds = inches

&real;

&#8476;

blackletter capital R = real part symbol

®

&reg;

&#174;

registered sign = registered trade mark sign

 

&rlm;

&#8207;

right-to-left mark

§

&sect;

&#167;

section sign

­

&shy;

&#173;

soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen

l

&supl;

&#185;

superscript one = superscript digit one

&trade;

&8482;

trade mark sign

&weierp;

&#8472;

script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p

"

&bdquo;

&#8222;

double low-9 quotation mark

«

&laquo;

&#171;

left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet

"

&ldquo;

&#8220;

left double quotation mark

<

&lsaquo;

&#8249;

single left-pointing angle quotation mark

'

&lsquo;

&#8216;

left single quotation mark

»

&raquo;

&#187;

right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet

"

&rdquo;

&#8221;

right double quotation mark

>

&rsaquo;

&#8250;

single right-pointing angle quotation mark

'

&rsquo;

&8217;

right single quotation mark

'

&sbquo;

&8218;

single low-9 quotation mark

 

&emsp;

&#8195;

em space

 

&ensp;

&#8194;

en space

 

&nbsp;

&#160;

no-break space = non-breaking space

 

&thinsp;

&#8201;

thin space

 

&zwj;

&#8205;

zero width joiner

 

&zwnj;

&#8204;

zero width non-joiner


Mathematical and technical characters, (including Greek)

Symbol

Entity

Number

Description

°

&deg;

&#176;

degree sign

÷

&divide;

&#247;

division sign

½

&frac12;

&#189;

fraction one half

¼

&frac14;

&#188;

fraction one quarter

¾

&frac34;

&#190;

fraction three quarters

&ge;

&#8805;

greater-than or equal to

&le;

&#8804;

less-than or equal to

-

&minus;

&#8722;

minus sign

2

&sup2;

&#178;

superscript two = squared

3

&sup3;

&#179;

superscript three = cubed

x

&times;

&#215;

multiplication sign

&alefsym;

&#8501;

alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal

&and;

&#8743;

logical and = wedge

&ang;

&#8736;

angle

&asymp;

&8776;

almost equal to = asymptotic to

&cap;

&#8745;

intersection = cap

&#8773;

approximately equal to

&cup;

&#8746;

union = cup

&empty;

&#8709;

empty set = null set = diameter

&equiv;

&#8801;

identical to

&exist;

&#8707;

there exists

&fnof;

&#402;

latin small f with hook = function = florin

&forall;

&#8704;

for all

&infin;

&#8734;

infinity

&int;

&#8747;

integral

&isin;

&8712;

element of

<

&lang;

&#9001;

left-pointing angle bracket = bra

&lceil;

&8968;

left ceiling = apl upstile

&lfloor;

&#8970;

left floor = apl downstile

*

&lowast;

&#8727;

asterisk operator

µ

&micro;

&#181;

micro sign

&nabla;

&#8711;

nabla = backward difference

&ne;

&#8800;

not equal to

&ni;

&#8715;

contains as member

&notin;

&#8713;

not an element of

&nsub;

&#8836;

not a subset of

&oplus;

&#8853;

circled plus = direct sum

&or;

&#8744;

logical or = vee

&otimes;

&#8855;

circled times = vector product

&part;

&#8706;

partial differential

&perp;

&#8869;

up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular

±

&plusmn;

&#177;

plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign

&prod;

&#8719;

n-ary product = product sign

&prop;

&#8733;

proportional to

&radic;

&#8730;

square root = radical sign

>

&rang;

&#9002;

right-pointing angle bracket = ket

&rceil;

&#8969;

right ceiling

&rfloor;

&#8971;

right floor

&sdot;

&#8901;

dot operator

~

&sim;

&#8764;

tilde operator = varies with = similar to

&sub;

&#8834;

subset of

&sube;

&#8838;

subset of or equal to

&sum;

&#8721;

n-ary sumation

&sup;

&#8835;

superset of

&supe;

&#8839;

superset of or equal to

&there4;

&#8756;

therefore

Α

&Alpha;

&#913;

greek capital letter alpha

α

&alpha;

&#945;

greek small letter alpha

Β

&Beta;

&#914;

greek capital letter beta

β

&beta;

&#946;

greek small letter beta

Χ

&Chi;

&#935;

greek capital letter chi

χ

&chi;

&#967;

greek small letter chi

Δ

&Delta;

&#916;

greek capital letter delta

δ

&delta;

&#948;

greek small letter delta

Ε

&Epsilon;

&#917;

greek capital letter epsilon

ε

&epsilon;

&#949;

greek small letter epsilon

Η

&Eta;

&#919;

greek capital letter eta

η

&eta;

&#951;

greek small letter eta

Γ

&Gamma;

&#915;

greek capital letter gamma

γ

&gamma;

&#947;

greek small letter gamma

Ι

&lata;

&#921;

greek capital letter iota

ι

&iata;

&#953;

greek small letter iota

Κ

&Kappa;

&#922;

greek capital letter kappa

κ

&kappa;

&#954;

greek small letter kappa

Λ

&Lambda;

&#923;

greek capital letter lambda

λ

&lambda;

&#955;

greek small letter lambda

Μ

&Mu;

&#924;

greek capital letter mu

μ

&mu;

&#956;

greek small letter mu

Ν

&Nu;

&#925;

greek capital letter nu

ν

&nu;

&#957;

greek small letter nu

Ω

&Omega;

&#937;

greek capital letter omega

ω

&omega;

&#969;

greek small letter omega

Ο

&Omicron;

&#927;

greek capital letter omicron

ο

&omicron;

&#959;

greek small letter omicron

Φ

&Phi;

&#934;

greek capital letter phi

φ

&phi;

&#966;

greek small letter phi

Π

&Pi;

&#928;

greek capital letter pi

π

&pi;

&#960;

greek small letter pi

π

&piv;

&#982;

greek pi symbol

Ψ

&Psi;

&#936;

greek capital letter psi

ψ

&psi;

&#968;

greek small letter psi

Ρ

&Rho;

&#929;

greek capital letter rho

ρ

&rho;

&#961;

greek small letter rho

Σ

&Sigma;

&#931;

greek capital letter sigma

σ

&sigma;

&#963;

greek small letter sigma

&sigmaf;

&#962;

greek small letter final sigma

Τ

&Tau;

&#932;

greek capital letter tau

τ

&tau;

&#964;

greek small letter tau

Θ

&Theta;

&#920;

greek capital letter theta

θ

&theta;

&#952;

greek small letter theta

θ

&thetasym;

&#977;

greek small letter theta symbol

υ

&upsih;

&#978;

greek upsilon with hook symbol

Υ

&Upsilon;

&#933;

greek capital letter upsilon

υ

&upsilon;

&#965;

greek small letter upsilon

Ξ

&Xi;

&#926;

greek capital letter xi

ξ

&xi;

&#958;

greek small letter xi

Ζ

&Zeta;

&#918;

greek capital letter zeta

ζ

&zeta;

&#950;

greek small letter zeta


Shapes and Arrows

Symbol

Entity

Number

Description

&crarr;

&#8629;

downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return

&darr;

&#8595;

downwards arrow

&dArr;

&#8659;

downwards double arrow

&harr;

&#8596;

left right arrow

&hArr;

&#8660;

left right double arrow

&larr;

&#8592;

leftwards arrow

&lArr;

&#8656;

leftwards double arrow

&rarr;

&#8594;

rightwards arrow

&rArr;

&#8658;

rightwards double arrow

&uarr;

&#8593;

upwards arrow

&uArr;

&#8657;

upwards double arrow

&clubs;

&#9827;

black club suit = shamrock

&diams;

&#9830;

black diamond suit

&hearts;

&#9829;

black heart suit = valentine

&spades;

&#9824;

black spade suit

&loz;

&#9674;

lozenge


The information in these tables is Copyright © 1994-2002 W3C ® (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Keio University), All Rights Reserved. http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/


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