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Data and Variables

A variable is a named piece of memory that you use to store information in your Java program – a piece of data of some description. Each named piece of memory that you define in your program will only be able to store data of one particular type. If you define a variable to store integers, for example, you cannot use it to store a value that is a decimal fraction, such as 0.75. If you have defined a variable that you will use to refer to a Hat object, you can only use it to reference an object of type Hat (or any of its subclasses, as we saw in Chapter 1). Since the type of data that each variable can store is fixed, whenever you use a variable in your program the compiler is able to check that it is not being used in a manner or a context that is inappropriate to its type. If a method in your program is supposed to process integers, the compiler will be able to detect when you inadvertently try to use the method with some other kind of data, for example, a string or a numerical value that is not integral.

Explicit data values that appear in your program are called literals. Each literal will also be of a particular type: 25, for instance, is an integer value of type int. We will go into the characteristics of the various types of literals that you can use as we discuss each variable type.

Before you can use a variable you must specify its name and type in a declaration statement. Before we look at how you write a declaration for a variable, we should consider what flexibility you have in choosing a name.

Variable Names

The name that you choose for a variable, or indeed the name that you choose for anything in Java, is called an identifier. An identifier can be any length, but it must start with a letter, an underscore (_), or a dollar sign ($). The rest of an identifier can include any characters except those used as operators in Java (such as +, –, or *), but you will be generally better off if you stick to letters, digits, and the underscore character.

Java is case sensitive, so the names republican and Republican are not the same. You must not include blanks or tabs in the middle of a name, so Betty May is out, but you could have BettyMay or even Betty_May. Note that you can't have 10Up as a name since you cannot start a name with a numeric digit. Of course, you could use tenUp as an alternative.

Subject to the restrictions we have mentioned, you can name a variable almost anything you like, except for two additional restraints – you can't use keywords in Java as a name for something, and a name can't be anything that is a constant value. Keywords are words that are an essential part of the Java language. We saw some keywords in the previous chapter and we will learn a few more in this chapter. If you want to know what they all are, a complete list appears in Appendix A. The restriction on constant values is there because, although it is obvious why a name can't be 1234 or 37.5, constants can also be alphabetic, such as true and false for example. We will see how we specify constant values later in this chapter. Of course, the basic reason for these rules is that the compiler has to be able to distinguish between your variables and other things that can appear in a program. If you try to use a name for a variable that makes this impossible, then it's not a legal name.

Clearly, it makes sense to choose names for your variables that give a good indication of the sort of data they hold. If you want to record the size of a hat, for example, hatSize is not a bad choice for a variable name whereas qqq would be a bad choice. It is a common convention in Java to start variable names with a lower case letter and, where you have a name that combines several words, to capitalize the first letter of each word, as in hatSize or moneyWellSpent. You are in no way obliged to follow this convention but since almost all the Java world does, it helps to do so.


If you feel you need more guidance in naming conventions (and coding conventions in general) take a look at

Variable Names and Unicode

Even though you are likely to be entering your Java programs in an environment that stores ASCII, all Java source code is in Unicode (subject to the reservations we noted in Chapter 1). Although the original source that you create is ASCII, it is converted to Unicode characters internally, before it is compiled. While you only ever need ASCII to write any Java language statement, the fact that Java supports Unicode provides you with immense flexibility. It means that the identifiers that you use in your source program can use any national language character set that is defined within the Unicode character set, so your programs can use French, Greek, or Cyrillic variable names, for example, or even names in several different languages, as long as you have the means to enter them in the first place. The same applies to character data that your program defines.

Variables and Types

As we mentioned earlier, each variable that you declare can store values of a type determined by the data type of that variable. You specify the type of a particular variable by using a type name in the variable declaration. For instance, here's a statement that declares a variable that can store integers:

int numberOfCats;

The data type in this case is int, the variable name is numberOfCats, and the semicolon marks the end of the statement. The variable, numberOfCats, can only store values of type int.

Many of your variables will be used to reference objects, but let's leave those on one side for the moment as they have some special properties. The only things in Java that are not objects are variables that correspond to one of eight basic data types, defined within the language. These fundamental types, also called primitive types, allow you to define variables for storing data that fall into one of three categories:

  • Numeric values, which can be either integer or floating point

  • Variables which store a single Unicode character

  • Logical variables that can assume the values true or false

All of the type names for the basic variable types are keywords in Java so you must not use them for other purposes. Let's take a closer look at each of the basic data types and get a feel for how we can use them.

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