tion that had previously been left to server-side languages such as Perl. Prior to that time, a round
trip to the server was needed to determine if a required field had been left blank or an entered
The capability to handle some basic validation on the client was an exciting new feature at a time
when use of telephone modems (operating at 28.8 kbps) was widespread. Such slow speeds
turned every trip to the server into an exercise in patience.
aspects of the browser window and its contents. Even Microsoft, with its own client-side scripting
Explorer from its very earliest version.
is important to understand its nature, history, and limitations. Specifically, this chapter examines:
A Short History
Around 1992, a company called Nombas began developing an embedded scripting language
called C-minus-minus (Cmm for short). The idea behind Cmm was simple: a scripting language
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