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13.7. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements

MySQL 5.0 provides support for server-side prepared statements. This support takes advantage of the efficient client/server binary protocol implemented in MySQL 4.1, provided that you use an appropriate client programming interface. Candidate interfaces include the MySQL C API client library (for C programs), MySQL Connector/J (for Java programs), and MySQL Connector/NET. For example, the C API provides a set of function calls that make up its prepared statement API. See Section 22.2.4, “C API Prepared Statements”. Other language interfaces can provide support for prepared statements that use the binary protocol by linking in the C client library, one example being the mysqli extension, available in PHP 5.0 and later.

An alternative SQL interface to prepared statements is available. This interface is not as efficient as using the binary protocol through a prepared statement API, but requires no programming because it is available directly at the SQL level:

SQL syntax for prepared statements is intended to be used for situations such as these:

SQL syntax for prepared statements is based on three SQL statements:

The following SQL statements can be used in prepared statements: CREATE TABLE, DELETE, DO, INSERT, REPLACE, SELECT, SET, UPDATE, and most SHOW statements. supported. ANALYZE TABLE, OPTIMIZE TABLE, and REPAIR TABLE are supported as of MySQL 5.0.23.

Other statements are not yet supported.

Statements not allowed in SQL prepared statements are generally also not permitted in stored routines. Any exceptions to this rule are noted in Chapter 17, Stored Procedures and Functions.

The following examples show two equivalent ways of preparing a statement that computes the hypotenuse of a triangle given the lengths of the two sides.

The first example shows how to create a prepared statement by using a string literal to supply the text of the statement:

mysql> PREPARE stmt1 FROM 'SELECT SQRT(POW(?,2) + POW(?,2)) AS hypotenuse';
mysql> SET @a = 3;
mysql> SET @b = 4;
mysql> EXECUTE stmt1 USING @a, @b;
+------------+
| hypotenuse |
+------------+
|          5 |
+------------+
mysql> DEALLOCATE PREPARE stmt1;

The second example is similar, but supplies the text of the statement as a user variable:

mysql> SET @s = 'SELECT SQRT(POW(?,2) + POW(?,2)) AS hypotenuse';
mysql> PREPARE stmt2 FROM @s;
mysql> SET @a = 6;
mysql> SET @b = 8;
mysql> EXECUTE stmt2 USING @a, @b;
+------------+
| hypotenuse |
+------------+
|         10 |
+------------+
mysql> DEALLOCATE PREPARE stmt2;

As of MySQL 5.0.7, placeholders can be used for the arguments of the LIMIT clause when using prepared statements. See Section 13.2.7, “SELECT Syntax”.

SQL syntax for prepared statements cannot be used in nested fashion. That is, a statement passed to PREPARE cannot itself be a PREPARE, EXECUTE, or DEALLOCATE PREPARE statement.

SQL syntax for prepared statements is distinct from using prepared statement API calls. For example, you cannot use the mysql_stmt_prepare() C API function to prepare a PREPARE, EXECUTE, or DEALLOCATE PREPARE statement.

SQL syntax for prepared statements cannot be used within stored routines (procedures or functions), or triggers. This restriction is lifted as of MySQL 5.0.13 for stored procedures, but not for stored functions or triggers. However, you cannot open a cursor on a prepared statment. That is, you cannot prepare a DECLARE ... CURSOR statement, execute it, and then open that cursor.

SQL syntax for prepared statements does not support multi-statements (that is, multiple statements within a single string separated by ‘;’ characters).

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