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12.6. Further Information

Hemisphere lighting has been popularized by Microsoft and is described in several presentations on DirectX. An online article, Per-Pixel Lighting, by Microsoft's Phil Taylor describes this technique. Material in this article was derived from a talk given by Dan Baker and Chas Boyd at Meltdown 2001.

Image-based lighting builds on the foundations of texture mapping and reflection mapping first discussed by Jim Blinn and Martin Newell in 1976. Paul Debevec has recently popularized this area and maintains a Web site ( with lots of useful information on this topic, including a gallery of light probe images, the history of reflection mapping, electronic versions of his publications, and much more. A related Web site is from which you can download the free (for personal and educational use) version of HDRShop or obtain the commercial version. There are also tutorials that helped me create the light probe images and environment maps described in this chapter.

Spherical harmonic lighting was described by Ravi Ramamoorthi and Pat Hanrahan in their 2001 SIGGRAPH paper. A lengthy and more tractable discussion of the details of this approach is available in a white paper by Robin Green of Sony.

The überlight shader for RenderMan is discussed in the book Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Apodaca and Gritz. A Cg version of this shader is described by Fabio Pellacini and Kiril Vidimice in the book GPU Gems, edited by Randima Fernando.

  1. Apodaca, Anthony A., and Larry Gritz, Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1999.

  2. Baker, Dan, and C. Boyd, Advanced Shading and Lighting, Microsoft Corp. Meltdown 2001 Presentation.

  3. Barzel, Ronen, Lighting Controls for Computer Cinematography, Journal of Graphics Tools, 2(1), 1997, pp. 120.

  4. Blinn, James, and M.E. Newell, Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images, Communications of the ACM, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 542547, October 1976.

  5. Debevec, Paul, Image-Based Lighting, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 22, no 2, pp. 26-34.

  6. Debevec, Paul, personal Web site.

  7. Debevec, Paul, and J. Malik, Recovering High Dynamic Range Radiance Maps from Photographs, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '97 Proceedings), pp. 369378.

  8. Debevec, Paul, Rendering Synthetic Objects into Real Scenes: Bridging Traditional and Image-Based Graphics with Global Illumination and High Dynamic Range Photography, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '98 Proceedings), pp. 189198.

  9. GPU Gems: Programming Techniques, Tips, and Tricks for Real-Time Graphics, Editor: Randima Fernando, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 2004.

  10. Green, Robin, Spherical Harmonic Lighting: The Gritty Details, GDC 2003 Presentation.

  11. Lowell, Ross, Matters of Light & Depth, Lowel-Light Manufacturing, 1992.

  12. Ramamoorthi, Ravi, and P. Hanrahan, An Efficient Representation for Irradiance Environment Maps, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2001 Proceedings), pp. 497500.

  13. Taylor, Philip, Per-Pixel Lighting, Microsoft Corp., Nov. 2001.

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