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Part III. Language Reference

Table of Contents

1. Basic syntax
Escaping from HTML
Instruction separation
Comments
2. Types
Introduction
Booleans
Syntax
Converting to boolean
Integers
Syntax
Integer overflow
Converting to integer
Floating point numbers
Converting to float
Strings
Syntax
Useful functions and operators
Converting to string
String conversion to numbers
Arrays
Syntax
Useful functions
Array do's and don'ts
Converting to array
Comparing
Examples
Objects
Object Initialization
Converting to object
Resource
Converting to resource
Freeing resources
NULL
Syntax
Pseudo-types and variables used in this documentation
mixed
number
callback
void
...
Type Juggling
Type Casting
3. Variables
Basics
Predefined variables
Variable scope
The global keyword
Using static variables
References with global and static variables
Variable variables
Variables from outside PHP
HTML Forms (GET and POST)
HTTP Cookies
Dots in incoming variable names
Determining variable types
4. Constants
Syntax
Magic constants
5. Expressions
6. Operators
Operator Precedence
Arithmetic Operators
Assignment Operators
Bitwise Operators
Comparison Operators
Ternary Operator
Error Control Operators
Execution Operators
Incrementing/Decrementing Operators
Logical Operators
String Operators
Array Operators
Type Operators
7. Control Structures
if
else
elseif
Alternative syntax for control structures
while
do-while
for
foreach
break
continue
switch
declare
Ticks
return
require
include
require_once
include_once
8. Functions
User-defined functions
Function arguments
Making arguments be passed by reference
Default argument values
Variable-length argument lists
Returning values
Variable functions
Internal (built-in) functions
9. Classes and Objects (PHP 4)
class
extends
Constructors
Scope Resolution Operator (::)
parent
Serializing objects - objects in sessions
The magic functions __sleep and __wakeup
References inside the constructor
Comparing objects
10. Classes and Objects (PHP 5)
Introduction
The Basics
class
new
extends
Autoloading Objects
Constructors and Destructors
Constructor
Destructor
Visibility
Members Visibility
Method Visibility
Scope Resolution Operator (::)
Static Keyword
Class Constants
Class Abstraction
Object Interfaces
implements
Examples
Overloading
Member overloading
Method overloading
Object Iteration
Patterns
Factory
Singleton
Magic Methods
__sleep and __wakeup
__toString
__set_state
Final Keyword
Object cloning
Comparing objects
Reflection
Table of Contents
Introduction
Reflector
ReflectionException
ReflectionFunction
ReflectionParameter
ReflectionClass
ReflectionObject
ReflectionMethod
ReflectionProperty
ReflectionExtension
Extending the reflection classes
Type Hinting
Late Static Bindings
Limitations of self::
Late Static Bindings' usage
Edge cases
11. Exceptions
Extending Exceptions
12. References Explained
What References Are
What References Do
What References Are Not
Passing by Reference
Returning References
Unsetting References
Spotting References
global References
$this