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5.5. Installation-Related Programs

The programs in this section are used when installing or upgrading MySQL.

5.5.1. comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File

comp_err creates the errmsg.sys file that is used by mysqld to determine the error messages to display for different error codes. comp_err normally is run automatically when MySQL is built. It compiles the errmsg.sys file from the plaintext file located at sql/share/errmsg.txt in MySQL source distributions.

comp_err also generates mysqld_error.h, mysqld_ername.h, and sql_state.h header files.

For more information about how error messages are defined, see the MySQL Internals Manual.

Invoke comp_err like this:

shell> comp_err [options]

comp_err understands the options described in the following list.

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --charset=path, -C path

    The character set directory. The default is ../sql/share/charsets.

  • --debug=debug_options, -# debug_options

    Write a debugging log. The debug_options string often is 'd:t:O,file_name'. The default is 'd:t:O,/tmp/comp_err.trace'.

  • --debug-info, -T

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --header_file=file_name, -H file_name

    The name of the error header file. The default is mysqld_error.h.

  • --in_file=file_name, -F file_name

    The name of the input file. The default is ../sql/share/errmsg.txt.

  • --name_file=file_name, -N file_name

    The name of the error name file. The default is mysqld_ername.h.

  • --out_dir=path, -D path

    The name of the output base directory. The default is ../sql/share/.

  • --out_file=file_name, -O file_name

    The name of the output file. The default is errmsg.sys.

  • --statefile=file_name, -S file_name

    The name for the SQLSTATE header file. The default is sql_state.h.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.5.2. make_win_bin_dist — Package MySQL Distribution as ZIP Archive

This script is used on Windows after building a MySQL distribution from source to create executable programs. It packages the binaries and support files into a ZIP archive that can be unpacked at the location where you want to install MySQL.

make_win_bin_dist is a shell script, so you must have Cygwin installed to use it.

This program's use is subject to change. Currently, you invoke it as follows from the root directory of your source distribution:

shell> make_win_bin_dist [options] package_basename [copy_def ...]

The package_basename argument provides the basename for the resulting ZIP archive. This name will be the name of the directory that results from unpacking the archive.

Because you might want to include files of directories from other builds, you can instruct this script do copy them in for you, via copy_def arguments, which of which is of the form relative_dest_name=source_name.



If you specify a directory, the entire directory will be copied.

make_win_bin_dist understands the following options:

  • --debug

    Pack the debug binaries and produce an error if they were not built.

  • --embedded

    Pack the embedded server and produce an error if it was not built. The default is to pack it if it was built.

  • --exe-suffix=suffix

    Add a suffix to the basename of the mysql binary. For example, a suffix of -abc produces a binary named mysqld-abc.exe.

  • --no-debug

    Don't pack the debug binaries even if they were built.

  • --no-embedded

    Don't pack the embedded server even if it was built.

  • --only-debug

    Use this option when the target for this build was Debug, and you just want to replace the normal binaries with debug versions (that is, do not use separate debug directories).

5.5.3. make_win_src_distribution — Create Source Distribution for Windows

make_win_src_distribution creates a Windows source package to be used on Windows systems. It is used after you configure and build the source distribution on a Unix or Unix-like system so that you have a server binary to work with. (See the instructions at Section, “Creating a Windows Source Package from the Latest Development Source”.)

Invoke make_win_src_distribution like this from the top-level directory of a MySQL source distribution:

shell> make_win_src_distribution [options]

make_win_src_distribution understands the following options:

  • --help

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --debug

    Print information about script operations; do not create a package.

  • --tmp

    Specify the temporary location.

  • --suffix

    The suffix name for the package.

  • --dirname

    Directory name to copy files (intermediate).

  • --silent

    Do not print verbose list of files processed.

  • --tar

    Create a tar.gz package instead of a .zip package.

    By default, make_win_src_distribution creates a Zip-format archive with the name, where VERSION represents the version of your MySQL source tree.

5.5.4. mysql_fix_privilege_tables — Upgrade MySQL System Tables

Some releases of MySQL introduce changes to the structure of the system tables in the mysql database to add new privileges or support new features. When you update to a new version of MySQL, you should update your system tables as well to make sure that their structure is up to date. Otherwise, there might be capabilities that you cannot take advantage of. First, make a backup of your mysql database, and then use the following procedure.

Note: As of MySQL 5.0.19, mysql_fix_privilege_tables is superseded by mysql_upgrade, which should be used instead. See Section 5.5.8, “mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade”.

On Unix or Unix-like systems, update the system tables by running the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables

You must run this script while the server is running. It attempts to connect to the server running on the local host as root. If your root account requires a password, indicate the password on the command line like this:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables --password=root_password

The mysql_fix_privilege_tables script performs any actions necessary to convert your system tables to the current format. You might see some Duplicate column name warnings as it runs; you can ignore them.

After running the script, stop the server and restart it.

On Windows systems, MySQL distributions include a mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql SQL script that you can run using the mysql client. For example, if your MySQL installation is located at C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0, the commands look like this:

C:\> cd "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0"
C:\> bin\mysql -u root -p mysql
mysql> SOURCE scripts/mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql

The mysql command will prompt you for the root password; enter it when prompted.

If your installation is located in some other directory, adjust the pathnames appropriately.

As with the Unix procedure, you might see some Duplicate column name warnings as mysql processes the statements in the mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql script; you can ignore them.

After running the script, stop the server and restart it.

5.5.5. mysql_install_db — MySQL Data Directory Initialization Script

mysql_install_db initializes the MySQL data directory and creates the system tables that it contains, if they do not exist. Because the MySQL server, mysqld, needs to access the data directory when it runs later, you should either run mysql_install_db from the same account that will be used for running mysqld or run it as root and use the --user option to indicate the username that mysqld will run as.

To invoke mysql_install_db, use the following syntax:

shell> mysql_install_db [options]

mysql_install_db needs to invoke mysqld with the --bootstrap and --skip-grant-tables options (see Section, “Typical configure Options”). If MySQL was configured with the --disable-grant-options option, --bootstrap and --skip-grant-tables will be disabled. To handle this, set the MYSQLD_BOOTSTRAP environment variable to the full pathname of a server that has all options enabled. mysql_install_db will use that server.

mysql_install_db supports the following options:

  • --basedir=path

    The path to the MySQL installation directory.

  • --force

    Causes mysql_install_db to run even if DNS does not work. In that case, grant table entries that normally use hostnames will use IP addresses.

  • --datadir=path, --ldata=path

    The path to the MySQL data directory.

  • --rpm

    For internal use. This option is used by RPM files during the MySQL installation process.

  • --skip-name-resolve

    Use IP addresses rather than hostnames when creating grant table entries. This option can be useful if your DNS does not work.

  • --srcdir=path

    For internal use. The directory under which mysql_install_db looks for support files such as the error message file and the file for populating the help tables. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.32.

  • --user=user_name

    The login username to use for running mysqld. Files and directories created by mysqld will be owned by this user. You must be root to use this option. By default, mysqld runs using your current login name and files and directories that it creates will be owned by you.

  • --verbose

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

  • --windows

    For internal use. This option is used for creating Windows distributions.

5.5.6. mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security

This program enables you to improve the security of your MySQL installation in the following ways:

  • You can set a password for root accounts.

  • You can remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local host.

  • You can remove anonymous-user accounts.

  • You can remove the test database, which by default can be accessed by anonymous users.

Invoke mysql_secure_installation without arguments:

shell> mysql_secure_installation

The script will prompt you to determine which actions to perform.

5.5.7. mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables

The mysql_tzinfo_to_sql program loads the time zone tables in the mysql database. It is used on systems that have a zoneinfo database (the set of files describing time zones). Examples of such systems are Linux, FreeBSD, Sun Solaris, and Mac OS X. One likely location for these files is the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory. If your system does not have a zoneinfo database, you can use the downloadable package described in Section 5.10.8, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

mysql_tzinfo_to_sql can be invoked several ways:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_dir
shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_file tz_name
shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql --leap tz_file

For the first invocation syntax, pass the zoneinfo directory pathname to mysql_tzinfo_to_sql and send the output into the mysql program. For example:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql /usr/share/zoneinfo | mysql -u root mysql

mysql_tzinfo_to_sql reads your system's time zone files and generates SQL statements from them. mysql processes those statements to load the time zone tables.

The second syntax causes mysql_tzinfo_to_sql to load a single time zone file tz_file that corresponds to a time zone name tz_name:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_file tz_name | mysql -u root mysql

If your time zone needs to account for leap seconds, invoke mysql_tzinfo_to_sql using the third syntax, which initializes the leap second information. tz_file is the name of your time zone file:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql --leap tz_file | mysql -u root mysql

5.5.8. mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade

mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL. It checks all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. If a table is found to have a possible incompatibility, it is checked. If any problems are found, the table is repaired. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named in the data directory. This is used to quickly check if all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file, use the --force option.

To check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables, mysql_upgrade executes the following commands:

mysqlcheck --check-upgrade --all-databases --auto-repair

mysql_upgrade supersedes the older mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. In MySQL 5.0.19, mysql_upgrade was added as a shell script and worked only for Unix systems. As of MySQL 5.0.25, mysql_upgrade is an executable binary and is available on all systems. On systems older than those supporting mysql_upgrade, you can execute the mysqlcheck command manually, and then upgrade your system tables as described in Section 5.5.4, “mysql_fix_privilege_tables — Upgrade MySQL System Tables”.

For details about what is checked, see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”).

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

mysql_upgrade reads options from the command line and from the [mysql_upgrade] group in option files. It supports the following options:

  • --help

    Display a short help message and exit.

  • --basedir=path

    The path to the MySQL installation directory.

  • --datadir=path

    The path to the data directory.

  • --force

    Force execution of mysqlcheck even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL. (In other words, this option causes the file to be ignored.)

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server. The default username is root.

  • --verbose

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

Other options are passed to mysqlcheck and to mysql_fix_privilege_tables. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password] option.


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