Returns a string formatted according to the given format string using the given integer timestamp or the current time if no timestamp is given. In other words, timestamp is optional and defaults to the value of time().
The format of the outputted date string. See the formatting options below.
|format character||Description||Example returned values|
|Day of the month, 2 digits with leading zeros|
|A textual representation of a day, three letters|
|Day of the month without leading zeros|
|A full textual representation of the day of the week|
|ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week (added in PHP 5.1.0)|
|English ordinal suffix for the day of the month, 2 characters||
|Numeric representation of the day of the week|
|The day of the year (starting from 0)|
|ISO-8601 week number of year, weeks starting on Monday (added in PHP 4.1.0)||Example: |
|A full textual representation of a month, such as January or March|
|Numeric representation of a month, with leading zeros|
|A short textual representation of a month, three letters|
|Numeric representation of a month, without leading zeros|
|Number of days in the given month|
|Whether it's a leap year|
|ISO-8601 year number. This has the same value as
|A full numeric representation of a year, 4 digits||Examples: |
|A two digit representation of a year||Examples: |
|Lowercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiem|
|Uppercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiem|
|Swatch Internet time|
|12-hour format of an hour without leading zeros|
|24-hour format of an hour without leading zeros|
|12-hour format of an hour with leading zeros|
|24-hour format of an hour with leading zeros|
|Minutes with leading zeros|
|Seconds, with leading zeros|
|Milliseconds (added in PHP 5.2.2)||Example: |
|Timezone identifier (added in PHP 5.1.0)||Examples: |
|Whether or not the date is in daylight saving time|
|Difference to Greenwich time (GMT) in hours||Example: |
|Difference to Greenwich time (GMT) with colon between hours and minutes (added in PHP 5.1.3)||Example: |
|Timezone abbreviation||Examples: |
|Timezone offset in seconds. The offset for timezones west of UTC is always negative, and for those east of UTC is always positive.|
|ISO 8601 date (added in PHP 5)||2004-02-12T15:19:21+00:00|
|» RFC 2822 formatted date||Example: |
|Seconds since the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT)||See also time()|
Unrecognized characters in the format string will be printed
Z format will always return
0 when using gmdate().
The optional timestamp parameter is an integer Unix timestamp that defaults to the current local time if a timestamp is not given. In other words, it defaults to the value of time().
Returns a formatted date string. If a non-numeric value is used for
FALSE is returned and an
E_WARNING level error is emitted.
Every call to a date/time function will generate a
if the time zone is not valid, and/or a
if using the system settings or the
variable. See also date_default_timezone_set()
|5.1.0||The valid range of a timestamp is typically from Fri, 13 Dec 1901 20:45:54 GMT to Tue, 19 Jan 2038 03:14:07 GMT. (These are the dates that correspond to the minimum and maximum values for a 32-bit signed integer). However, before PHP 5.1.0 this range was limited from 01-01-1970 to 19-01-2038 on some systems (e.g. Windows).|
Now issues the
|5.1.1||There are useful constants of standard date/time formats that can be used to specify the format parameter.|
// set the default timezone to use. Available since PHP 5.1
// Prints something like: Monday
// Prints something like: Monday 15th of August 2005 03:12:46 PM
echo date('l dS \of F Y h:i:s A');
// Prints: July 1, 2000 is on a Saturday
echo "July 1, 2000 is on a " . date("l", mktime(0, 0, 0, 7, 1, 2000));
/* use the constants in the format parameter */
// prints something like: Mon, 15 Aug 2005 15:12:46 UTC
// prints something like: 2000-07-01T00:00:00+00:00
echo date(DATE_ATOM, mktime(0, 0, 0, 7, 1, 2000));
You can prevent a recognized character in the format string from being expanded by escaping it with a preceding backslash. If the character with a backslash is already a special sequence, you may need to also escape the backslash.
// prints something like: Wednesday the 15th
echo date("l \\t\h\e jS");
$tomorrow = mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m") , date("d")+1, date("Y"));
$lastmonth = mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m")-1, date("d"), date("Y"));
$nextyear = mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m"), date("d"), date("Y")+1);
This can be more reliable than simply adding or subtracting the number of seconds in a day or month to a timestamp because of daylight saving time.
Some examples of date() formatting. Note that you should escape any other characters, as any which currently have a special meaning will produce undesirable results, and other characters may be assigned meaning in future PHP versions. When escaping, be sure to use single quotes to prevent characters like \n from becoming newlines.
// Assuming today is: March 10th, 2001, 5:16:18 pm
$today = date("F j, Y, g:i a"); // March 10, 2001, 5:16 pm
$today = date("m.d.y"); // 03.10.01
$today = date("j, n, Y"); // 10, 3, 2001
$today = date("Ymd"); // 20010310
$today = date('h-i-s, j-m-y, it is w Day z '); // 05-16-17, 10-03-01, 1631 1618 6 Fripm01
$today = date('\i\t \i\s \t\h\e jS \d\a\y.'); // It is the 10th day.
$today = date("D M j G:i:s T Y"); // Sat Mar 10 15:16:08 MST 2001
$today = date('H:m:s \m \i\s\ \m\o\n\t\h'); // 17:03:17 m is month
$today = date("H:i:s"); // 17:16:17
To generate a timestamp from a string representation of the date, you may be able to use strtotime(). Additionally, some databases have functions to convert their date formats into timestamps (such as MySQL's » UNIX_TIMESTAMP function).
Timestamp of the start of the request is available in
$_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME'] since PHP 5.1.